The long-awaited accelerator is now ready to investigate the origins of elements

One of the greatest hopes of nuclear physicists is about to come true. After decades of anticipation, a US$942 million accelerator in Michigan will open on 2 May. Its studies will map previously uncharted sections of the unusual nuclei landscape and give information on how stars and supernova explosions generate the majority of the elements in the Universe.

“This initiative has enabled the whole community of nuclear physicists to realize a long-held desire,” says Ani Aprahamian, an experimental nuclear physicist at the University of Notre Dame in Indiana. Kate Jones, a physics student at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville, concurs. “This is the facility that we have been waiting for,” she adds.

The disappearing neutrinos that have the potential to upend basic physics

The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University (MSU) in East Lansing had a $730 million budget, with the majority of funding coming from the US Department of Energy and the state of Michigan contributing $94.5 million. Additional $212 million was given by MSU in a variety of ways, including the land. It takes the place of an older National Science Foundation accelerator at the same location, dubbed the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). FRIB construction began in 2014 and was finished late last year, “five months ahead of schedule and under budget,” according to nuclear physicist Bradley Sherrill, FRIB’s scientific director.
Nuclear scientists have been clamoring for decades for a facility of this size — one capable of producing rare isotopes orders of magnitude quicker than the NSCL and comparable accelerators globally. The initial suggestions for such a machine date all the way back to the late 1980s, and agreement was established in the 1990s. “The community was convinced that we needed this technology,” says Witold Nazarewicz, a theoretical nuclear physicist and principal scientist at FRIB.

Internal mechanisms

All FRIB tests will begin at the basement of the facility. Ionized atoms of a particular element, often uranium, will be propelled into a 450-metre-long accelerator that bends like a paper clip to fit within the 150-metre-long hall. At the pipe’s terminus, the ion beam will collide with a graphite wheel that will spin continually to prevent overheating any one location. Although the majority of the nuclei will pass through graphite, a small percentage will collide with its carbon nuclei. This results in the disintegration of uranium nuclei into smaller combinations of protons and neutrons, each of which has a nucleus of a distinct element and isotope.
This beam of various nuclei will subsequently be directed upward to a ground-level ‘fragment separator.’ The separator is composed of a set of magnets that deflect each nucleus in a direction determined by its mass and charge. By fine-tuning this technique, the FRIB operators will be able to generate a fully isotope-free beam for each experiment.

The impact of the coronavirus epidemic on the world’s largest physics experiments

After that, the selected isotope may be sent via a labyrinth of beam pipes to one of the several trial rooms. Although production rates for the most rare isotopes may be as low as one nucleus per week, Sherrill believes the lab will be able to transport and analyse practically every single one.
A distinguishing aspect of FRIB is the presence of a second accelerator capable of smashing rare isotopes against a fixed target, simulating the high-energy collisions that occur within stars or supernovae.
FRIB will initially operate at a modest beam intensity, but its accelerator will progressively ramp up to create ions at a pace orders of magnitude greater than that of NSCL. Additionally, each uranium ion will travel quicker to the graphite target, carrying 200 mega-electronvolts of energy, compared to the 140 MeV carried by NSCL ions. FRIB’s increased energy is excellent for synthesizing a large variety of various isotopes, including hundreds that have never been synthesized previously, according to Sherrill.

The frontiers of knowledge

Physicists are anticipating the launch of FRIB, since their understanding of the isotope landscape is still incomplete. In theory, the forces that keep atomic nuclei together are the product of the strong force — one of nature’s four basic forces and the same force that holds three quarks together to form a neutron or a proton. However, nuclei are complicated things with many moving elements, and their structures and behaviors cannot be predicted precisely from basic principles, according to Nazarewicz.
As a result, researchers have devised a number of simplified models that accurately predict some properties of a particular range of nuclei but fail or provide only rough estimations beyond that range. This holds true even for fundamental problems, like as the rate at which an isotope decays — its half-life — or whether it can exist at all, Nazarewicz explains. “If you ask me how many isotopes of tin or lead exist, I will give you an answer with a big error bar,” he explains. FRIB will be able to create hundreds of hitherto undiscovered isotopes (see ‘Unexplored nuclei’) and will use their characteristics to test a variety of nuclear hypotheses.
Jones and others will be particularly interested in isotopes with’magic’ numbers of protons and neutrons — such as 2, 8, 20, 28 or 50 — because they generate entire energy levels (known as shells). Magic isotopes are important because they enable the most precise checks of theoretical predictions. Jones and her colleagues have spent years studying tin isotopes with increasingly fewer neutrons, creeping closer to tin-100, which has both magic quantities of neutrons and protons.
Additionally, theoretical uncertainties imply that researchers do not yet have a clear explanation for how the periodic table’s components arose. The Big Bang primarily created hydrogen and helium; the other chemical elements in the periodic table, up to iron and nickel, were synthesized mostly by nuclear fusion inside stars. However, heavier elements cannot be formed by fusion. They were created by other sources, most often radioactive decay. This occurs when a nucleus accumulates enough neutrons to become unstable, and one or more of its neutrons converts to a proton, resulting in the formation of new element with a higher atomic number.
This may occur as a result of neutron bombardment of nuclei during short yet catastrophic events like as supernovae or the merging of two neutron stars. The most investigated incident of this sort occurred in 2017, and it was consistent with theories in which colliding orbs generate materials heavier than iron. However, astrophysicists were unable to determine which particular atoms were produced or in what amounts, according to Hendrik Schatz, an MSU nuclear astrophysicist. FRIB’s primary strength, he argues, will be its exploration of the neutron-rich isotopes produced during these events.
The linear accelerator at the FRIB is composed of 46 cryomodules that accelerate ion beams at temperatures just above absolute zero.
The facility will contribute to the basic issue of “how many neutrons may be added to a nucleus and how does this affect the nucleus’s interactions?” According to Anu Kankainen, an experimental physicist from Finland’s University of Jyväskylä.
FRIB will complement existing state-of-the-art accelerators used to investigate radioactive isotopes, according to Klaus Blaum, a scientist at Germany’s Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics. Japan and Russia have optimized their facilities to create the heaviest elements conceivable, those at the end of the periodic table.
The €3.1 billion Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), an atom smasher now under construction in Darmstadt, Germany, is slated to be finished in 2027 (although Russia’s withdrawal from the project during the invasion of Ukraine may cause delays). FAIR will generate both antimatter and matter and will be capable of storing nuclei for extended periods of time. “A single computer cannot handle everything,” adds Blaum, who has served on advisory panels for both FRIB and FAIR.

10 of the Largest Construction Projects in the World

What comes to mind when you consider the world’s biggest building projects? You’re correct if you guessed airports, canals, and subways. And, of course, industrial complexes and utility projects are included. However, some of the current projects included on the list may surprise you, such as the International Space Station and an amusement complex modeled like Disney World.

Dubai’s Al Maktoum International Airport

Middle East, United Arab Emirates, Dubai, new Al Maktoum airport was a massive development project. Bowman, Charles No other airport compares to Dubai’s Al Maktoum International Airport, which spans over 21 square miles. The facility is capable of handling 200 wide-body aircraft simultaneously. The second phase of the airport’s development is anticipated to cost more than $32 billion. Originally expected to be completed in 2018, the newest expansion phase has been postponed, and no completion date has been established.

Saudi Arabia, Jubail II

Jubail Industry City was a massive building project in Saudi Arabia’s Middle Eastern Cultureia. Getty Images / Ali Al Mubarak Jubail II is a 22-year-old industrial city extension project with a $11 billion expansion budget. It started its second phase in 2014. It will eventually include at least 100 industrial units, an 800,000-cubic-meter desalination plant, miles of trains, roads, and highways, and an oil refinery capable of generating at least 350,000 barrels per day. The full project is scheduled to conclude in 2024.

Dubailand is located in Dubai.

Dubailand, located in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, was a massive development project. Getty Images / Matilde Gattoni Three Walt Disney Worlds may be included inside the Dubailand complex. Dubailand, which would cover an area of 278 square kilometers and cost $64 billion, will be divided into six sections: amusement parks, sports arenas, eco-tourism, health facilities, scientific attractions, and hotels. Additionally, it will have the world’s biggest hotel, with 6,500 rooms, and a 10-million-square-foot shopping mall. The project is anticipated to be completed in 2025.

Space, International Space Station

International Space Station building was an astronomically vast undertaking. Britannica/UIG / Getty Images Every 92 minutes, the International Space Station (ISS) rounds the globe. It is being built at a cost of more than $60 billion by a collaboration of 15 countries and five space agencies. The space station’s total cost and anticipated extensions might approach $1 trillion, at which time it could become a residence for up to 1 million extraterrestrial people.

China’s South-North Water Transfer Project

The South-North Water Transfer Project in China’s Qinghai province was a massive building undertaking. Getty Images / Christophe Boisvieux Although the north of China is home to about half of the country’s population, it only possesses around 20% of the country’s water resources. To address this imbalance, China has sponsored the building of three massive canals, each more than 600 miles long, that will transport water from China’s three major rivers to the north. The project is scheduled to be completed in 48 years. When fully operational, it will provide 44.8 billion cubic meters of water per year.

Crossrail Project in London

Men engaged in building work on the Crossrail subterranean metro system in London. Getty Images / Lionel Derimais The world’s first subterranean railway system continues to expand, with the addition of 26 miles of tube connecting 40 stops. Construction is anticipated to cost $23 billion. The project is slated to be completed in stages, with the first new line—the Elizabeth line—expected to open in 2019 and the additional lines following in 2020.

California’s High-Speed Railway

Trains Traveling Along A Railroad Track With A City in the Background Getty Images / Ren Morales California’s high-speed rail construction started in 2015 and is slated to conclude in 2029. It will link eight of the state’s ten major cities, stretching from San Diego to San Francisco. The project is divided into two phases: The first phase will link Los Angeles to San Francisco; the second phase will expand the connection to San Diego and Sacramento. The train will be totally electric, run entirely on renewable energy, and capable of reaching speeds of up to 200 miles per hour.

Japan’s Chuo Shinkansen

Pond 5 inside Sellafield Getty Images / Barry Lewis Officially known as the Linear Chuo Shinkansen, Japan’s newest high-speed train line will connect Tokyo and Nagoya, a distance of 286 kilometers, in 40 minutes at a top speed of 505 kilometers per hour. This section of the high-speed route is expected to be completed by 2027. A further phase will see the railway extended to Osaka. The Tokyo-Nagoya line will be underground for about 86 percent of its length, necessitating major tunnel construction. This magnetic levitation (a.k.a. “maglev”) train is the world’s fastest.

Beijing International Airport, China

Beijing, China, Beijing Capital International Airport. A portion of the new Terminal 3 building, which opened in February 2008 and is the world’s second biggest structure. Getty Images / Christian Kober Beijing International Airport will ultimately outperform Dubai’s Al Maktoum International Airport in terms of cost, total square miles, passenger and aircraft capacity. The first section of the airport was finished in time for the 2008 Olympic Games. Additional expansion is expected to be completed by 2025. Terminal 1, built by Zaha Hadid, embodies a variety of sustainable design principles inside a future architectural shell.

Libya’s Great Man-Made River Project

Truck with colossal pipe Getty Images / Friedrich Schmidt Since 1985, Libya has been developing the “Great Man-Made River” (GMR) project. It is the world’s biggest irrigation project. When finished, it would irrigate over 350,000 acres of agricultural land and significantly boost drinking water availability in the majority of Libya’s metropolitan areas. The project’s water supply comes from the subterranean Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System. The project is anticipated to be completed in 2030.

Albania


Albanìa (in Albanian: Shqipëria; historically Arbëria [7]), officially the Republic of Albania (in Albanian: Republika and Shqipërisë, AFI: [ɾepublika e ʃcipəˈɾisə]), is a state located in the Balkan peninsula. It borders Montenegro to the north-west, Kosovo to the north-east [8], North Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south. Its coasts overlook the Adriatic Sea (the Otranto Channel) and the Ionian Sea. The country, with its borders, has an area of ​​28756 km² and a population of 2.8 million inhabitants.
Cradle of the Illyrian civilization, it was united in the Kingdom of Epirus with Pyrrhus, underwent the Greek-ancient colonization on the coast and in the classical age was part of the Roman Empire, becoming one of the cultural and religious centers of the Byzantine Empire in 1190 (Principality of Arbanon). Subsequently invaded by the barbarians (Slavs, Avars, Bulgarians), it had the military penetration of the Kingdom of Sicily (with the Sovereigns of the Altavilla, Swabian and Aragon dynasties) and the commercial penetration of the Republic of Venice. In the Middle Ages the battle of Kosovo (1389) brought the Turco-Ottomans to Albania who, initially contained by the League of Albanian peoples, or League of Lezhë, created in 1444 by Giorgio Castriota known as “Scanderbeg”, had the better of the death of these ( 1467). The Principality of Albania was the only country in the Balkans that in the 15th century resisted – for well over two decades – the attacks of the Ottomans. Albania was divided into small autonomous principalities subjected for four and a half centuries to the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire.
In the nineteenth century popular revolts for independence were accentuated, including that of Epirus which managed to make itself independent (1820-1822). The League of Prizren (1878) promoted the idea of ​​an Albanian national state, also in defense of the borders from Serbian-Montenegrin and Greek pressures, and established the modern Albanian alphabet. On November 28, 1912, it declared its independence from the Turks, later recognized by the Conference of Ambassadors in London in 1913, the year in which the first provisional government was born in the midst of the Balkan wars, the Kingdom of Albania. Briefly became an Italian Protectorate at the end of the First World War, it was again occupied and annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1939. During the Second World War, parts of the territories of the so-called ethnic Albania were incorporated, including only the territories of the north-west and ethnic Albanian settlements left beyond the borders of the state. From 1944 to 1990 Albania was an extremely isolationist, Stalinist and anti-revisionist Communist state. Since 1998 Albania has been a parliamentary republic.
Albania is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and one of the founding members of the Union for the Mediterranean. Since 24 June 2014, Albania is officially a candidate for membership of the European Union [9] after having formally applied for EU membership on 28 April 2009. Free market reforms have opened the country to foreign investment, in particular in the development of energy and transport infrastructures. It is among the emerging countries of Europe and, thanks to the numerous historical and natural beauties, among the new tourist destinations of the Balkan Peninsula and the Mediterranean basin.
The capital of Albania is Tirana. Other major urban centers are Durres, Valona, ​​Shkodra and Gjirokastra. Albanian is the official language; Albanians call themselves shqiptarë.
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Balkan Peninsula


The Balkan peninsula, also known as the Balkans (from the abbreviated form of the Balkan Mountains, a mountain system between Bulgaria and Serbia; from the Turkish balkan ‘mountain’ [2]), is a peninsula in Eastern Europe; it is bounded to the west by the Adriatic Sea, to the southwest by the Ionian Sea, to the east by the Black Sea, to the southeast by the Sea of ​​Marmara, and to the south by the Aegean Sea.

Description

As often happens for the peninsulas, the definition of its border on the mainland is uncertain, aggravated by the fact that it is one of its most extensive borders. Furthermore, the definition of this dividing line does not help the fact that the territory presents within it great differences and fragmentations by history, nationality, language, culture and religion of the populations who live there.
The border is usually established on the Danube and its tributary Sava. In this way, parts of Slovenia and Romania (an Eastern Romance-speaking country) are also included in this area, which however historically had to do with the Balkans only after the dissolution of the Habsburg Empire. According to geographer Vittorio Vialli, the northern boundary is represented by the geographical line Istria-Odessa. Slovenia excludes from the region the interpretation of the border that includes the Kupa River, starting it from the city of Rijeka and reaching the mouth of the Danube. [3] In this way it borders to the west with the so-called Italian geographical region, [4] [5] which also includes territories that are not part of the Italian Republic. The political definition of the Balkans came into use in the 19th century to designate the European countries affected by the expansion and subsequent dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. [6]
After all, the characteristics of the territory, crossed by parallel mountain ranges that hindered the movement in a north-south direction and a uniform colonization already at the time of the Greco-Roman expansion, and its very geographical location help to explain the tormented historical events that have characterized the peninsula. [7]
Until 1975 the peninsula was crossed by the Balkan Express, a train departing from Vienna and arriving in Istanbul. The climate is continental in the north and east of the territory (with hot summers and very cold winters), while the western area and Greece have a Mediterranean climate.
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Balkan Peninsula


The Balkan peninsula, also known as the Balkans (from the abbreviated form of the Balkan Mountains, a mountain system between Bulgaria and Serbia; from the Turkish balkan ‘mountain’ [2]), is a peninsula in Eastern Europe; it is bounded to the west by the Adriatic Sea, to the southwest by the Ionian Sea, to the east by the Black Sea, to the southeast by the Sea of ​​Marmara, and to the south by the Aegean Sea.

Description

As often happens for the peninsulas, the definition of its border on the mainland is uncertain, aggravated by the fact that it is one of its most extensive borders. Furthermore, the definition of this dividing line does not help the fact that the territory presents within it great differences and fragmentations by history, nationality, language, culture and religion of the populations who live there.
The border is usually established on the Danube and its tributary Sava. In this way, parts of Slovenia and Romania (an Eastern Romance-speaking country) are also included in this area, which however historically had to do with the Balkans only after the dissolution of the Habsburg Empire. According to geographer Vittorio Vialli, the northern boundary is represented by the geographical line Istria-Odessa. Slovenia excludes from the region the interpretation of the border that includes the Kupa River, starting it from the city of Rijeka and reaching the mouth of the Danube. [3] In this way it borders to the west with the so-called Italian geographical region, [4] [5] which also includes territories that are not part of the Italian Republic. The political definition of the Balkans came into use in the 19th century to designate the European countries affected by the expansion and subsequent dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. [6]
After all, the characteristics of the territory, crossed by parallel mountain ranges that hindered the movement in a north-south direction and a uniform colonization already at the time of the Greco-Roman expansion, and its very geographical location help to explain the tormented historical events that have characterized the peninsula. [7]
Until 1975 the peninsula was crossed by the Balkan Express, a train departing from Vienna and arriving in Istanbul. The climate is continental in the north and east of the territory (with hot summers and very cold winters), while the western area and Greece have a Mediterranean climate.
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Monasterolo Casotto


Monasterolo Casotto is a small town located in the Casotto valley, of which the best known town is Pamparato. Monasterolo is divided into various hamlets. The main ones are: Borgata Sottana, Borgata Cravena, Borgata Soprana and Borgata Case Scuole. Often this village is desolate in winter, but in summer it becomes a small town where many Ligurians and Turinese go on holiday. Until a few years ago a typical restaurant was active. Recently a small restaurant has opened in Borgata Soprana which, in addition to the bar service, serves as a resale of typical products managed directly by a resident family. Just outside the town there are the remains of the castle, today only the tower remains visible. In the village there is also a Pro Loco which during the summer is managed by young people who go on holiday, who organize dinners followed by evenings of dancing in the square.

History

An ancient inscription found at the sanctuary of San Colombano attributes Roman origins to the small town of Monasterolo Casotto, whose name is still attributed to a monastery of Benedictines who settled here later around 1000 [4], but which it already saw in the epoch Lombard the presence of an ancient monastery of Benedictine nuns connected with the convent of Pogliola di Morozzo.
The addition of “Casotto”, from the name of the stream that runs through the valley, dates back to 1862, when a Royal decree granted the Municipalities of the Province of Cuneo the right to adopt a new name.
On that occasion a new coat of arms was also adopted which depicts a church leaning against a monastery on which a white tower stands, surrounded by two branches of holly.
The history of Monasterolo Casotto sees its ownership pass from the Count of Bredolo to that of Alba and to the Marquis of Ceva (on the orders of the Marquis Bonifacio of Savona who had divided the states in 1142). The Lords of Monasterolo lived in the castle, now destroyed, near the Feia stream, a castle that was the seat of duty and justice during the bloody “War of Salt”.
The territories were disputed between the Marquis of Ceva and the Savoy court, after which the inhabitants of Monasterolo also participated in the various wars of liberation that affected Piedmont first and Italy later with the world conflicts.
During the Fascist regime the Municipality was annexed to that of San Michele Mondovì until 1947, when autonomy was again recognized.
Currently the town is divided into two hamlets, the Sottana at 735 m and the Soprana at 824 m. Halfway there is the parish church built at the beginning of the twentieth century to unify the two previous parishes: that of San Bernardo in the Soprana hamlet and that of S. Antonio in the Sottana hamlet. It is dedicated to Saints James and John and keeps the bell that once belonged to the church of San Bernardo.
On a hill beyond the Soprana hamlet is the Sanctuary of S. Colombano, built around 1000 by the Benedictine monks who dedicated it to this saint of Irish origin, founder of monastic life in the kingdom of France in the seventh century. In the Monregalesi Valleys, San Colombano was depicted as a Roman soldier, perhaps to symbolize the strong link between religious and political action in the monasteries.
The current church is made up of two bodies from different periods: an older longitudinal one but of uncertain date, with incorporated bell tower and one with a square baroque plan (1645). Over the years some changes have been made to the structure, lastly, in 1884, the portico with exposed roof of the current facade was rebuilt. Inside there are still visible votive paintings as evidence of devotion to the Saint, while on the outside there is the ancient “Conca” or “Arbi”, a hollowed-out stone where oily liquid was collected which seems to have miraculous properties.
On that occasion a new coat of arms was also adopted which depicts a church leaning against a monastery on which a white tower stands, surrounded by two branches of holly.
On the fai site, in the places of the heart section there is the tower of the monasterolo castle and it is possible to vote for it.
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Hudson Terminal Towers


Hudson Terminal included two 22-story Romanesque skyscrapers above the H&M station.[14]:326[67] The buildings were designed by Clinton and Russell architect James Hollis Wells and constructed by contractor George A. Fuller.[14]:326[19][56]:123 Purdy and Henderson was responsible for structural planning.[14]:437[56]:123 Located on what would become the site of the World Trade Center, Hudson Terminal’s skyscrapers preceded the future complex in size and function.[22] When the buildings were first opened, the height and appearance of the city’s skyscrapers were still hotly debated, being criticized for their volume and density. So many of the early 20th century skyscrapers were designed with towers, steeples, or domes above a dense base, while others were divided into two structures, such as the Hudson Terminal.
The complex occupied most of the lot bordered by Cortlandt Street to the south, Church Street to the east, and Fulton Street to the west, with the northernmost building addressed as 50 Church Street and the southernmost as 30 Church Street. Hudson Terminal was also close to several low-rise buildings to the west on Greenwich Street.[22] They were called the Fulton and Cortlandt buildings respectively, and were collectively called the Church Street terminal.[19][68] These buildings were separated by Dey Street, as the city government would not allow the street to be closed.

Format

The Hudson Terminal buildings, along with 49 Chambers, were the first skyscrapers in the city to have an “H” shape, with courtyards inside providing light for the offices.[14]:392 The complex’s lot originally occupied it. a total area of ​​6,500 m2.[14]:326 According to the Engineering Record, the Fulton building occupied a plot of 48 by 47 m, while the Cortlandt building plot measured 65 by 52 m.[56]:121 However, the New-York Tribune published different measurements, 48 ​​by 55 m for the Fulton Building and 65 by 57 m for the Cortlandt Building.[19] By the mid-20th century, annexes had been added to both buildings, resulting in a combined total area of ​​7,971.3 m2.[27]
The design of the two buildings was similar. The first to third floors were parallelograms in the plan, with the buildings above the third floor assuming an “H” shape. The courtyards of both skyscrapers faced north and south, while the corridors on each floor of each building extended eastward along Church Street.[14]:326–327[70] The courtyard of the Cortlandt building spanned across the street. 9.8 by 23.2 m, while that of the Fulton building measured 14.6 by 9.8 m. The wings on each side of the courtyards were asymmetrically wide.[56]:121 The roofs of the buildings rose to a height of 84.05 m.[19][56]:121 Small “towers” with pitched roofs on both sides. buildings brought the total height to 93 m.

Facade

The facade of the skyscrapers was encased in Indiana limestone below the 50th-floor cornice, and with brick and terracotta from there.[19][60][67][56]:121 The original design included Doric columns beneath the roof cornice.[19] When built, the first four floors were made of polished granite and limestone; with each ground floor section made of glass. The top six floors of each building were covered in light-toned terracotta as per the original plan.[14]:328[60] The ends of each building also had strips of terracotta in the same shade. Arches connected three of the six upper floors.[14]:328 Due to the asymmetrical dimensions of the skyscrapers, the Fulton Building had eighteen spans facing Church Street and nineteen spans facing Dey Street, while the Cortlandt Building had twenty-eight spans. two stretches facing Church Street and twenty opposite Cortlandt Street.
The two buildings were connected by a pedestrian bridge above the street on the third floor of each building.[63] Another bridge connecting the 17th floor of both skyscrapers was approved and built in 1913, shortly after the complex opened.

materials

Altogether, the buildings contained 16.3 million bricks, 13,000 lamps, 15,200 doors, 5,000 windows, and 4,100 tonnes of terracotta, as well as 120,000 m2 of partitions and 31,000 m3 of concrete arches. The buildings also had several kilometers of pipes, water and gas piping, wooden planks, moldings and electrical wiring.
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Hudson Terminal


Hudson Terminal was a subway station and office building complex in the Radio Row neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, New York. Opened in 1908 and 1909, it was comprised of a terminal for the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad (H&M), and two 22-story office skyscrapers, plus three underground. The complex occupied much of a two-block lot bordered by Greenwich, Cortlandt, Church and Fulton streets, later the site of the World Trade Center.
The rail terminal consisted of five rail lines and six platforms serving H&M trains to and from New Jersey; these trains passed through the Downtown Hudson tunnels, under the Hudson River, heading west. The two 22-story skyscrapers above the terminal, the Fulton Building to the north and the Cortlandt Building to the south, were designed by architect James Hollis Wells of the firm Clinton and Russell in the Neo-Romanesque style. The underground floors included a shopping mall, an electrical substation, and baggage claim areas. The complex could accommodate 687,000 people a day, more than the original Pennsylvania Station in Midtown Manhattan.
The buildings were opened first, being the largest in office space when completed, while the terminal was opened later. H&M was successful until the mid-20th century, when it went bankrupt. The railroad and Hudson Terminal were acquired in 1962 by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which renamed the system the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH). The Port Authority decided to demolish the Hudson Terminal to build the World Trade Center, with the station being closed in 1971, replaced by PATH’s World Trade Center station. Although the buildings were demolished in 1972, the last vestiges of the station were removed in the 2000s as part of the reconstruction of the World Trade Center after the September 11, 2001 attacks.

planning and construction

In January 1905, the Hudson Companies was created to complete construction of the Uptown Hudson Tunnels, a tunnel between Jersey City, New Jersey, and Midtown Manhattan, New York, which had been under construction intermittently since 1874. The company also built the Downtown Hudson tunnels, which included a station in Jersey City’s Exchange Place neighborhood, as well as a terminal and a pair of office buildings in Lower Manhattan, which would become the Hudson Terminal.[1][2] Shortly after the announcement of the construction of the Downtown Hudson tunnels, real estate activity grew around the area of ​​the future station.[3] The Hudson and Manhattan Railroad Company was created in December 1906 to operate the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad (H&M), a public transportation system presided over by William Gibbs McAdoo, which would use the tunnels. The system connected Hoboken, Pavonia and Exchange Place, three of the five major rail terminals on the west coast of the Hudson River.
Land acquisition for the terminal began in December 1905. Hudson Companies acquired most of the two blocks bordered by Greenwich Streets to the west, Cortlandt to the south, Church to the east, and Fulton to the north. A few low-rise buildings on Cortlandt Street were purchased so that the Hudson Terminal view would be assured.[9] One of the owners—the Wendel family, who owned various properties in Manhattan—refused to sell their lot, valued at $75,000 (equivalent to 1,702,273 in 2019[10]), and they unsuccessfully sued H&M, having spent 20,000 dollars (equivalent to 453,939 in 2019) on legal fees. By May 1906, H&M already owned most of the necessary land.[13]:44 The 6,500 m2 purchased for the complex to be built[14]:326 had cost an average of 430 to 480 dollars per m2.
Excavations at the site of the buildings were underway as early as 1907,[15] and the first foundation columns were placed in May of that year.[13]:44 Because of the moisture in the soil in that area, and the proximity to the river Hudson to the west, an underground retaining wall had to be built around the Hudson Terminal site.[14]:328[16] According to architectural writers Sarah Landau and Carl W. Condit, the structure was five times larger. than any previously built.[14]:328 At the time, there were many office buildings being built in Lower Manhattan, although the area witnessed a reduction in the volume of real estate transactions.[17] The complex was built at a cost of US$8 million (equivalent to US$165 million in 2019[10]).[14]:328 The buildings were owned by H&M when they were completed.
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China is hatching a plan to find Earth 2.0


After sending robots to the moon, landing them on Mars and building its own space station, China is now eyeing the distant solar system. This month, scientists will release detailed plans for the country’s first mission to discover an exoplanet.
The mission is designed to survey planets in other parts of the Milky Way outside our solar system, with the goal of finding the first Earth-like planet that orbits the star’s habitable zone like the sun. Astronomers think such a planet, known as Earth 2.0, would have the right conditions for liquid water—and possibly even life—to exist.
More than 5,000 exoplanets have been discovered in the Milky Way, most of which were used by NASA’s Kepler telescope, which ran for nine years before running out of fuel in 2018. Some of these planets are terrestrial rocky celestial stars orbiting small red dwarfs, but none fit the definition of Earth 2.0.
Jessie Christiansen, an astrophysicist at NASA’s Exoplanet Science Institute in California, said that with current technology and telescopes, it is difficult to find small Earth-like planets when their host stars are 1 million times heavier and 1 billion times brighter. Signal. Pasadena Institute of Technology.
China’s Earth 2.0 plan hopes to change that. It will be funded by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and is wrapping up its early design phase. If the design passes a panel of experts in June, the mission team will receive funding to begin building the satellite. The team plans to launch the spacecraft on a Long March rocket by the end of 2026.

seven eyes

The Earth 2.0 satellite is designed to carry seven telescopes that can observe the sky for four years. Six of the telescopes will work together to survey the Cygnus-Lyra constellation, the same patch of sky that Kepler has searched. “The Kepler field is an easy-to-achieve result because we get very good data from there,” said astronomer Jiang Ge, who is in charge of the Earth 2.0 mission at the Shanghai Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
The telescope will look for exoplanets by detecting tiny changes in the star’s brightness that indicate a planet has passed in front of it. Using multiple small telescopes at the same time gives scientists a wider field of view than a single large telescope like Kepler. Together, Earth 2.0’s six telescopes will look at about 1.2 million stars in a 500-square-degree sky, which is about five times wider than Kepler’s field of view. Meanwhile, Earth 2.0 will be able to observe dimmer, farther stars than NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), which surveys bright stars near Earth.
“Our satellite could be 10 to 15 times more powerful than NASA’s Kepler telescope in its sky-measuring capabilities,” Ge said.
The satellite’s seventh instrument will be a gravitational microlensing telescope to measure roaming planets — free-roaming objects that don’t orbit any stars — as well as distant exoplanets, similar to Neptune. It detects changes in starlight as the gravity of a planet or star distorts the light of the background star it is passing by. The telescope will be aimed at the center of the Milky Way, where a large number of stars are located. If successfully launched, it will be the first gravitational microlensing telescope to operate in space, Ge said.
“Our satellite can basically do a census and identify exoplanets of different sizes, masses and ages. This mission will provide a large sample of exoplanets for future research,” he said. A1A2A3A4A5A6A7A8A9A10A11A12A13A14A15

Double the data

NASA launched Kepler in 2009 to find out how common Earth-like planets are in the Milky Way. To confirm that an exoplanet is similar to Earth, astronomers need to measure the time it takes to orbit the sun. Such planets should have an orbital period similar to Earth’s and pass through their sun about once a year. Astrophysicist Chelsea Huang of the University of Southern Queensland in Toowoomba said scientists needed at least three transits to calculate the precise orbital period, which required about three years of data, and sometimes even more if there were data gaps. long time.
But four years after the Kepler mission, parts of the instrument malfunctioned, preventing the telescope from staring at an area of ​​the sky for long periods of time. Kepler is on the cusp of finding some truly Earth-like planets, said Huang, who was a data modeling consultant on the Earth 2.0 team.
With Earth 2.0, astronomers have another four years of data that, combined with Kepler’s observations, could help confirm which exoplanets are truly Earth-like. “I’m very excited about the prospect of returning to the field of Kepler,” said Christiansen, who hopes to study Earth 2.0 data, if they become available.

Province of Cuneo


The province of Cuneo is an Italian province of Piedmont of 580 789 inhabitants [2]. Also counting the 14 metropolitan cities, it is the twenty-ninth Italian province by population [3], second by number of municipalities (247) [4], as well as fourth by surface immediately behind the provinces of Sassari, Bolzano and Foggia [5]. For this reason in Piedmont it is also called the Granda (large in Piedmontese).
It borders to the west with France (departments of the Hautes-Alpes, the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence and the Alpes-Maritimes in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region), to the north with the metropolitan city of Turin, to the east with the province of Asti, a south with Liguria (provinces of Imperia and Savona).
Established in 1859, it was the fourth largest Italian province until 1920, preceded only by the provinces of Sassari, Cagliari and Turin (which at the time also included the Aosta Valley). In 1920 with the establishment of the province of Trento (initially including Alto Adige) it became fifth and from 1927 still fifth (preceded by Sassari, Cagliari, the newly established Bolzano and the redefined province of Foggia) until 1975. After the establishment of new provinces in Sardinia in 2001, it is the third largest Italian province after Bolzano and Foggia. Following the reduction in the number of Sardinian provinces after the 2012 regional referendum, it is the fourth Italian province by surface area behind those of Sassari, Bolzano and Foggia.
The territory is made up of 50.8% of mountains (about half of the low mountain), 26.6% of hills and 22.6% of plains / plateaus.

History

It was established by the Rattazzi Decree (Royal Decree 3702 of 23 October 1859).
In 1860 the municipalities of the district of Tenda were assigned to the province of Cuneo, already belonging to the province of Nice ceded to France [7].
In 1947 it ceded Tenda, Vievola, San Dalmazzo di Tenda and Briga Marittima and some fractions of the municipalities of Vinadio and Valdieri to France by virtue of the Paris peace treaty signed by Italy on 10 February 1947 at the end of the Second World War.
In 1927 Cuneo was assigned the initials CU for car plates, then changed in 1928 to CN. There is no evidence that CU plates were ever actually issued and that they did not remain a pure paper theory. [Citation needed]

Physical geography

The Cottian and Maritime Alps and the Ligurian Alps surround it respectively to the west and south, with a large arch that only to the east of the Tanaro valley lowers in gentler forms, passing through the hilly system of the Langhe and Roero. The reliefs therefore form a large U-shaped border, within which opens the high plain crossed by the Po, the Tanaro and their numerous tributaries. On the left of the Tanaro, a portion of the Monferrato hills falls into the province, narrowing the plain between Bra and Saluzzo and deviating the course of the Tanaro, which reaches the Po only after having bypassed the entire hilly system from the south.
In the Alps, the rivers cut through green transversal valleys, which converge like a fan towards the plain. The northernmost valley is that of the Po which rises on the slopes of Monviso, the province’s highest elevation (3841m), the lowest Santo Stefano Belbo (170m); follow, almost parallel, the valleys of the Varaita, Maira and Grana streams, right tributaries of the Po, those of the Stura di Demonte and the Gesso, whose waters flow into the Tanaro. The valleys of some left tributaries of the Tanaro follow (Vermenagna, Pesio, Ellero, Corsaglia), and the Tanaro valley itself. The Belbo and Bormida valleys, which tributary to the Tanaro from the right, engrave and delimit the Langhe reliefs with other watercourses.
The climate has quite marked continental characteristics, determined by the screen that the reliefs oppose to the influences of the nearby Mediterranean. But the variety of altimetric and morphological factors cause rather different local climatic conditions between the Alpine area, the Langhe and the plain, especially as regards the trend of temperatures, the conditions of sunshine and the behavior of the winds. There are extensive woods, especially in the Alpine valleys and in the highest area of ​​the Langhe.
From the hydrographic point of view, the territory includes the upper basin of the Po and a large part of that of the Tanaro. The water courses that converge like a fan in the plain are generally short and steep, with low average flow, lean accentuated in winter and sometimes violent full in correspondence with the wettest periods.
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