Hudson Terminal

Hudson Terminal was a subway station and office building complex in the Radio Row neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, New York. Opened in 1908 and 1909, it was comprised of a terminal for the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad (H&M), and two 22-story office skyscrapers, plus three underground. The complex occupied much of a two-block lot bordered by Greenwich, Cortlandt, Church and Fulton streets, later the site of the World Trade Center.
The rail terminal consisted of five rail lines and six platforms serving H&M trains to and from New Jersey; these trains passed through the Downtown Hudson tunnels, under the Hudson River, heading west. The two 22-story skyscrapers above the terminal, the Fulton Building to the north and the Cortlandt Building to the south, were designed by architect James Hollis Wells of the firm Clinton and Russell in the Neo-Romanesque style. The underground floors included a shopping mall, an electrical substation, and baggage claim areas. The complex could accommodate 687,000 people a day, more than the original Pennsylvania Station in Midtown Manhattan.
The buildings were opened first, being the largest in office space when completed, while the terminal was opened later. H&M was successful until the mid-20th century, when it went bankrupt. The railroad and Hudson Terminal were acquired in 1962 by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which renamed the system the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH). The Port Authority decided to demolish the Hudson Terminal to build the World Trade Center, with the station being closed in 1971, replaced by PATH’s World Trade Center station. Although the buildings were demolished in 1972, the last vestiges of the station were removed in the 2000s as part of the reconstruction of the World Trade Center after the September 11, 2001 attacks.

planning and construction

In January 1905, the Hudson Companies was created to complete construction of the Uptown Hudson Tunnels, a tunnel between Jersey City, New Jersey, and Midtown Manhattan, New York, which had been under construction intermittently since 1874. The company also built the Downtown Hudson tunnels, which included a station in Jersey City’s Exchange Place neighborhood, as well as a terminal and a pair of office buildings in Lower Manhattan, which would become the Hudson Terminal.[1][2] Shortly after the announcement of the construction of the Downtown Hudson tunnels, real estate activity grew around the area of ​​the future station.[3] The Hudson and Manhattan Railroad Company was created in December 1906 to operate the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad (H&M), a public transportation system presided over by William Gibbs McAdoo, which would use the tunnels. The system connected Hoboken, Pavonia and Exchange Place, three of the five major rail terminals on the west coast of the Hudson River.
Land acquisition for the terminal began in December 1905. Hudson Companies acquired most of the two blocks bordered by Greenwich Streets to the west, Cortlandt to the south, Church to the east, and Fulton to the north. A few low-rise buildings on Cortlandt Street were purchased so that the Hudson Terminal view would be assured.[9] One of the owners—the Wendel family, who owned various properties in Manhattan—refused to sell their lot, valued at $75,000 (equivalent to 1,702,273 in 2019[10]), and they unsuccessfully sued H&M, having spent 20,000 dollars (equivalent to 453,939 in 2019) on legal fees. By May 1906, H&M already owned most of the necessary land.[13]:44 The 6,500 m2 purchased for the complex to be built[14]:326 had cost an average of 430 to 480 dollars per m2.
Excavations at the site of the buildings were underway as early as 1907,[15] and the first foundation columns were placed in May of that year.[13]:44 Because of the moisture in the soil in that area, and the proximity to the river Hudson to the west, an underground retaining wall had to be built around the Hudson Terminal site.[14]:328[16] According to architectural writers Sarah Landau and Carl W. Condit, the structure was five times larger. than any previously built.[14]:328 At the time, there were many office buildings being built in Lower Manhattan, although the area witnessed a reduction in the volume of real estate transactions.[17] The complex was built at a cost of US$8 million (equivalent to US$165 million in 2019[10]).[14]:328 The buildings were owned by H&M when they were completed.

China is hatching a plan to find Earth 2.0

After sending robots to the moon, landing them on Mars and building its own space station, China is now eyeing the distant solar system. This month, scientists will release detailed plans for the country’s first mission to discover an exoplanet.
The mission is designed to survey planets in other parts of the Milky Way outside our solar system, with the goal of finding the first Earth-like planet that orbits the star’s habitable zone like the sun. Astronomers think such a planet, known as Earth 2.0, would have the right conditions for liquid water—and possibly even life—to exist.
More than 5,000 exoplanets have been discovered in the Milky Way, most of which were used by NASA’s Kepler telescope, which ran for nine years before running out of fuel in 2018. Some of these planets are terrestrial rocky celestial stars orbiting small red dwarfs, but none fit the definition of Earth 2.0.
Jessie Christiansen, an astrophysicist at NASA’s Exoplanet Science Institute in California, said that with current technology and telescopes, it is difficult to find small Earth-like planets when their host stars are 1 million times heavier and 1 billion times brighter. Signal. Pasadena Institute of Technology.
China’s Earth 2.0 plan hopes to change that. It will be funded by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and is wrapping up its early design phase. If the design passes a panel of experts in June, the mission team will receive funding to begin building the satellite. The team plans to launch the spacecraft on a Long March rocket by the end of 2026.

seven eyes

The Earth 2.0 satellite is designed to carry seven telescopes that can observe the sky for four years. Six of the telescopes will work together to survey the Cygnus-Lyra constellation, the same patch of sky that Kepler has searched. “The Kepler field is an easy-to-achieve result because we get very good data from there,” said astronomer Jiang Ge, who is in charge of the Earth 2.0 mission at the Shanghai Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
The telescope will look for exoplanets by detecting tiny changes in the star’s brightness that indicate a planet has passed in front of it. Using multiple small telescopes at the same time gives scientists a wider field of view than a single large telescope like Kepler. Together, Earth 2.0’s six telescopes will look at about 1.2 million stars in a 500-square-degree sky, which is about five times wider than Kepler’s field of view. Meanwhile, Earth 2.0 will be able to observe dimmer, farther stars than NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), which surveys bright stars near Earth.
“Our satellite could be 10 to 15 times more powerful than NASA’s Kepler telescope in its sky-measuring capabilities,” Ge said.
The satellite’s seventh instrument will be a gravitational microlensing telescope to measure roaming planets — free-roaming objects that don’t orbit any stars — as well as distant exoplanets, similar to Neptune. It detects changes in starlight as the gravity of a planet or star distorts the light of the background star it is passing by. The telescope will be aimed at the center of the Milky Way, where a large number of stars are located. If successfully launched, it will be the first gravitational microlensing telescope to operate in space, Ge said.
“Our satellite can basically do a census and identify exoplanets of different sizes, masses and ages. This mission will provide a large sample of exoplanets for future research,” he said. A1A2A3A4A5A6A7A8A9A10A11A12A13A14A15

Double the data

NASA launched Kepler in 2009 to find out how common Earth-like planets are in the Milky Way. To confirm that an exoplanet is similar to Earth, astronomers need to measure the time it takes to orbit the sun. Such planets should have an orbital period similar to Earth’s and pass through their sun about once a year. Astrophysicist Chelsea Huang of the University of Southern Queensland in Toowoomba said scientists needed at least three transits to calculate the precise orbital period, which required about three years of data, and sometimes even more if there were data gaps. long time.
But four years after the Kepler mission, parts of the instrument malfunctioned, preventing the telescope from staring at an area of ​​the sky for long periods of time. Kepler is on the cusp of finding some truly Earth-like planets, said Huang, who was a data modeling consultant on the Earth 2.0 team.
With Earth 2.0, astronomers have another four years of data that, combined with Kepler’s observations, could help confirm which exoplanets are truly Earth-like. “I’m very excited about the prospect of returning to the field of Kepler,” said Christiansen, who hopes to study Earth 2.0 data, if they become available.

Province of Cuneo

The province of Cuneo is an Italian province of Piedmont of 580 789 inhabitants [2]. Also counting the 14 metropolitan cities, it is the twenty-ninth Italian province by population [3], second by number of municipalities (247) [4], as well as fourth by surface immediately behind the provinces of Sassari, Bolzano and Foggia [5]. For this reason in Piedmont it is also called the Granda (large in Piedmontese).
It borders to the west with France (departments of the Hautes-Alpes, the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence and the Alpes-Maritimes in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region), to the north with the metropolitan city of Turin, to the east with the province of Asti, a south with Liguria (provinces of Imperia and Savona).
Established in 1859, it was the fourth largest Italian province until 1920, preceded only by the provinces of Sassari, Cagliari and Turin (which at the time also included the Aosta Valley). In 1920 with the establishment of the province of Trento (initially including Alto Adige) it became fifth and from 1927 still fifth (preceded by Sassari, Cagliari, the newly established Bolzano and the redefined province of Foggia) until 1975. After the establishment of new provinces in Sardinia in 2001, it is the third largest Italian province after Bolzano and Foggia. Following the reduction in the number of Sardinian provinces after the 2012 regional referendum, it is the fourth Italian province by surface area behind those of Sassari, Bolzano and Foggia.
The territory is made up of 50.8% of mountains (about half of the low mountain), 26.6% of hills and 22.6% of plains / plateaus.


It was established by the Rattazzi Decree (Royal Decree 3702 of 23 October 1859).
In 1860 the municipalities of the district of Tenda were assigned to the province of Cuneo, already belonging to the province of Nice ceded to France [7].
In 1947 it ceded Tenda, Vievola, San Dalmazzo di Tenda and Briga Marittima and some fractions of the municipalities of Vinadio and Valdieri to France by virtue of the Paris peace treaty signed by Italy on 10 February 1947 at the end of the Second World War.
In 1927 Cuneo was assigned the initials CU for car plates, then changed in 1928 to CN. There is no evidence that CU plates were ever actually issued and that they did not remain a pure paper theory. [Citation needed]

Physical geography

The Cottian and Maritime Alps and the Ligurian Alps surround it respectively to the west and south, with a large arch that only to the east of the Tanaro valley lowers in gentler forms, passing through the hilly system of the Langhe and Roero. The reliefs therefore form a large U-shaped border, within which opens the high plain crossed by the Po, the Tanaro and their numerous tributaries. On the left of the Tanaro, a portion of the Monferrato hills falls into the province, narrowing the plain between Bra and Saluzzo and deviating the course of the Tanaro, which reaches the Po only after having bypassed the entire hilly system from the south.
In the Alps, the rivers cut through green transversal valleys, which converge like a fan towards the plain. The northernmost valley is that of the Po which rises on the slopes of Monviso, the province’s highest elevation (3841m), the lowest Santo Stefano Belbo (170m); follow, almost parallel, the valleys of the Varaita, Maira and Grana streams, right tributaries of the Po, those of the Stura di Demonte and the Gesso, whose waters flow into the Tanaro. The valleys of some left tributaries of the Tanaro follow (Vermenagna, Pesio, Ellero, Corsaglia), and the Tanaro valley itself. The Belbo and Bormida valleys, which tributary to the Tanaro from the right, engrave and delimit the Langhe reliefs with other watercourses.
The climate has quite marked continental characteristics, determined by the screen that the reliefs oppose to the influences of the nearby Mediterranean. But the variety of altimetric and morphological factors cause rather different local climatic conditions between the Alpine area, the Langhe and the plain, especially as regards the trend of temperatures, the conditions of sunshine and the behavior of the winds. There are extensive woods, especially in the Alpine valleys and in the highest area of ​​the Langhe.
From the hydrographic point of view, the territory includes the upper basin of the Po and a large part of that of the Tanaro. The water courses that converge like a fan in the plain are generally short and steep, with low average flow, lean accentuated in winter and sometimes violent full in correspondence with the wettest periods.
L1, L2, L3, L4, L5

Your brain expands and shrinks over time

When neuroscientist Jakob Seidlitz took his 15-month-old son to the paediatrician for a check-up final week, he left feeling unhappy. There wasn’t something mistaken together with his son — the teenager appeared to be growing at a typical tempo, in response to the peak and weight charts the doctor used. What Seidlitz felt was lacking was an equal metric to gauge how his son’s mind was rising. “It’s stunning how little organic info medical doctors have about this important organ,” says Seidlitz, who relies on the College of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.

Quickly, he would possibly be capable of change that. Working with colleagues, Seidlitz has amassed greater than 120,000 mind scans — the biggest assortment of its type — to create the primary complete progress charts for mind growth. The charts present visually how human brains develop shortly early in life after which shrink slowly with age. The sheer magnitude of the research, printed in Nature on 6 April1, has shocked neuroscientists, who’ve long had to contend with reproducibility issues of their analysis, partly due to small pattern sizes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is pricey, which means that scientists are sometimes restricted within the variety of contributors they’ll enrol in experiments.
“The huge knowledge set they assembled is extraordinarily spectacular and actually units a brand new normal for the sphere,” says Angela Laird, a cognitive neuroscientist at Florida Worldwide College in Miami.
Even so, the authors warning that their database isn’t utterly inclusive — they struggled to collect mind scans from all areas of the globe. The ensuing charts, they are saying, are subsequently only a first draft, and additional tweaks can be wanted to deploy them in medical settings.
If the charts are ultimately rolled out to paediatricians, nice care can be wanted to make sure that they don’t seem to be misinterpreted, says Hannah Tully, a paediatric neurologist on the College of Washington in Seattle. “A giant mind shouldn’t be essentially a well-functioning mind,” she says.

No straightforward activity

As a result of mind construction varies considerably from individual to individual, the researchers needed to combination an enormous variety of scans to create an authoritative set of progress charts with statistical significance. That’s no straightforward activity, says Richard Bethlehem, a neuroscientist on the College of Cambridge, UK, and a co-author of the research. As a substitute of working 1000’s of scans themselves, which might take a long time and be prohibitively expensive, the researchers turned to already-completed neuroimaging research.

Bethlehem and Seidlitz despatched e-mails to researchers all around the world asking if they might share their neuroimaging knowledge for the challenge. The duo was amazed by the variety of replies, which they attribute to the COVID-19 pandemic giving researchers much less time of their laboratories and extra time than traditional with their e-mail inboxes.
In complete, the workforce aggregated 123,894 MRI scans from 101,457 individuals, who ran the gamut from fetuses 16 weeks after conception to 100-year-old adults. The scans included brains from neurotypical individuals, in addition to individuals with quite a lot of medical circumstances, akin to Alzheimer’s illness, and neurocognitive variations, together with autism spectrum dysfunction. The researchers used statistical fashions to extract info from the pictures, and be certain that the scans had been immediately comparable, it doesn’t matter what kind of MRI machine had been used.

Brian change: Graph showing proportional volume of ventricular, white- and grey-matter and cortical thickness through life.

Supply: Ref. 1

The top result’s a set of charts plotting a number of key mind metrics by age. Some metrics, akin to grey-matter quantity and imply cortical thickness (the width of the gray matter) peak early in an individual’s growth, whereas the amount of white matter (discovered deeper within the mind) tends to peak by round age 30 (see ‘Mind change’). The info on ventricular quantity (the quantity of cerebrospinal fluid within the mind), particularly, stunned Bethlehem. Scientists knew that this quantity will increase with age, as a result of it’s sometimes related to mind atrophy, however Bethlehem was shocked by how quickly it tends to develop in late maturity.

A primary draft

The research comes on the heels of a bombshell paper printed in Nature on 16 March2 exhibiting that almost all brain-imaging experiments contain too few scans to reliably detect hyperlinks between mind perform and behavior, which means that their conclusions may be incorrect. Given this discovering, Laird expects the sphere to maneuver in the direction of adopting a framework just like the one utilized by Seidlitz and Bethlehem, to extend statistical energy.

To amass so many knowledge units is akin to a “diplomatic masterpiece”, says Nico Dosenbach, a neuroscientist at Washington College in St. Louis, Missouri, who co-authored the 16 March research. He says that is the size on which researchers ought to function when aggregating mind photographs.
Regardless of the dimensions of the information set, Seidlitz, Bethlehem and their colleagues acknowledge that their research suffers from an issue endemic to neuroimaging research — a exceptional lack of range. The mind scans they collected come primarily from North America and Europe, and disproportionately replicate populations which can be white, university-aged, city and prosperous. This limits the generalizability of the findings, says Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, a cognitive neuroscientist on the College of Cambridge. The research consists of solely three knowledge units from South America and one from Africa — accounting for round 1% of all of the mind scans used within the research.
Billions of individuals worldwide lack entry to MRI machines, making numerous brain-imaging knowledge troublesome to come back by, Laird says. However the authors haven’t stopped making an attempt. They’ve launched a website where they intend to update their growth charts in actual time as they obtain extra mind scans.

With huge knowledge units, huge duty

One other problem was figuring out give correct credit score to the house owners of the mind scans used to assemble the charts. A few of the scans got here from open-access knowledge units, however others had been closed to researchers. Many of the closed-data scans hadn’t but been processed in a means that might enable them to be included into the expansion charts, so their house owners did additional work to share them. These scientists had been then named as authors of the paper.
In the meantime, the house owners of the open knowledge units obtained solely a quotation within the paper — which doesn’t maintain as a lot status for researchers looking for funding, collaborations and promotions. Seidlitz, Bethlehem and their colleagues processed these knowledge. Generally, Bethlehem says that there was basically no direct contact with the house owners of those knowledge units. The paper lists about 200 authors and cites the work of a whole lot of others who contributed mind scans.

There are a selection of causes that knowledge units may be closed: as an illustration, to guard the privateness of well being knowledge, or as a result of researchers don’t have the sources to make them public. However this doesn’t make it truthful that the researchers who opened their knowledge units didn’t get authorship, the authors say. Of their paper’s Supplementary Data, they argue that the state of affairs “perversely disincentivises open science, because the individuals who do most to make their knowledge overtly accessible might be least more likely to benefit recognition”. Bethlehem and Seidlitz contend that authorship tips from journals, together with Nature — which say that every creator is predicted to have made “substantial contributions” to, for instance, the evaluation or interpretation of knowledge — are an impediment. (Nature’s information workforce is editorially impartial of its writer.)
A Nature spokesperson responds that the difficulty was “thought of fastidiously by the editors and authors in response to our authorship insurance policies” and that “all datasets had been appropriately credited per our knowledge quotation coverage”.
In the end, these issues could be traced again to how researchers are evaluated by the scientific enterprise, says Kaja LeWinn, a social epidemiologist on the College of California, San Francisco, who research neurodevelopment. She says that it’s incumbent on all the related stakeholders — together with funders, journals and analysis establishments — to re-evaluate how mind science could be correctly acknowledged and rewarded, particularly as a lot of these large-scale research grow to be extra frequent.

G1G2, G3G4G5


From a political point of view, the conflict between Protestantism and Catholicism had a formative effect on the early modern period, which culminated in the Thirty Years’ War. Confessionalization leads to a profound change in all areas of life, which can also be understood as a modernization process. The resulting struggles bring about a new order in Europe, which recognizes Old Believers and Protestants as religious communities with equal rights. The absolute supremacy of Catholic Spain is gradually being pushed back.
At least in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, a new type of state is emerging. The territorial state with a territorial lord differs from the medieval structures in that the landlord saw himself exclusively as a liege lord or vassal of the monarch, while the territorial lord appeared as a sovereign of his country.
The formative form of government in the early modern period is absolutism. With it comes a new form of economy, mercantilism. The way the monarch sees himself in relation to his subjects changes. The “Sun King” Louis XIV of France takes the view: “L’État, c’est moi”, in English: “I am the state”. King Frederick II of Prussia, on the other hand, as a representative of “enlightened absolutism”, sees himself as the “supreme servant of the state”.
The great persecution of witches also took place in the early modern period (and not in the Middle Ages). According to research by Heide Wunder, from which the concept of the “working couple” emerges, in the early modern period the working worlds of women and men in marriage were equal and complemented each other. Only with the emergence of the bourgeois world did domestic work and women’s work begin to be devalued.
At the end of this epoch, processes of democratization of society come to a breakthrough. This is expressed most strikingly in the North American War of Independence and initially also in the French Revolution, both of which initially lead to republican reorganization of society. As the nobility in France lose their social privileges, a democratic constitution becomes the written basis of the legal order in the United States.

Economic development

From an economic perspective, the Age of Revolution marked the end of feudalism, an economy based on land ownership, or rather the manorial rule of the landlord as liege lord or vassal of the monarch, and their possession of serf peasants. Furthermore, it means the end of the previous guild and estate system in the medieval towns. The expansion through increased seafaring and the associated discoveries led to new economic structures in world trade (see also India trade and China trade). It was replaced by a burgeoning colonialism and overseas trade by the great powers of Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, England and France and the development of manufacture. These developments laid the foundation for industrialization and capitalism. Silver mining had also undergone a profound change. The discoveries of silver deposits in the “New World” had led to the decline in traditional tin and silver mining in the Saxon and Bohemian Ore Mountains until this mining was finally discontinued. Absolutism brought with it a new form of economy, that of mercantilism. Capital gains based on trade give this system its name because the absolutist state used mercantile principles in its external relations. There is also the term early capitalism for this.
A major shift in industrialization came with the invention of the first fully functional steam engine by James Watt in the 18th century. This was preceded by steam engine designs which were far less efficient than, for example, those of Thomas Newcomen. This not only led to a revolution in almost all production conditions, especially in the iron industry, but also in the transport infrastructure through the introduction of the railway by George Stephenson, which began in England in 1825. However, this was also preceded by attempts by Richard Trevithick to construct a steam locomotive in 1804, which did not fail due to deficiencies in the locomotive technology, but due to the rail material. In a way, the invention of the railway heralded the end of the early modern period.

Early modern age

In the history of Europe, the terms early modern period, early modern period, early modern period or modern history usually refer to the period between the late Middle Ages (mid-13th century to late 15th century) and the transition from the 18th to the 19th century.
As with all periodizations in historical science, no exactly dateable epoch boundaries can be drawn. From a humanistic point of view, the changed image of man in humanism and the period of the Renaissance (rebirth of antiquity) shaped by it, as well as the development of book printing by Johannes Gutenberg, are considered the beginning of the turning point between the Middle Ages and modern times. Historically and politically significant turning points were the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the “discovery” of America by Christopher Columbus in 1492, the end of the Reconquista in the same year, the beginning of the Italian Wars in 1494 and the imperial reform in the Holy Roman Empire in 1495 and the beginning of the Reformation 1517.
The end of the early modern period is largely agreed with the French Revolution (1789-1799), which also closes the Age of Enlightenment. The Ancien Régime collapsed after 1789, first in France and as a result of the revolutionary wars in almost all of Europe. In the German-speaking world, the early modern period ended in 1806 with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire under pressure from Napoleon. The early modern period is followed as part of the modern period by modernity, which continues to the present day.

late early modern period

The end of the epoch and the beginning of the modern age are largely agreed in historical studies with the French Revolution from 1789 onwards. The French Revolution was a consequence of the Enlightenment that had already carried the American Revolution of 1776. Due to the events of 1789, the Ancien Régime collapsed, first in France and, as a result of the Revolutionary Wars, in almost all of Europe. In Germany, this was expressed primarily by the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. Despite the restoration of the old regime after Napoleon Bonaparte’s defeat in 1814/15, Europe had changed fundamentally politically. The historian Reinhart Koselleck assumes that further processes of change took place from around 1750 to 1850/70. He coined the term “saddle period” for this transitional period from the early modern period to modern times.

epochs in the early modern period

As a historiographer, Christoph Cellarius (1638–1707) was the first to use the term “modern times” to classify universal history. Gerhard Oestreich is considered one of the co-creators of the “Early Modern Age” as a separate discipline within history. In general, the concept of an epoch is associated with the appearance of humanism on the one hand and the end of the Ancien Régime on the other.
Depending on how you look at it, the early modern period can be divided into the following periods:
Dawn of the Renaissance (ca. 1350–1450) (often still attributed to the late Middle Ages) Age of Discoveries (1415–1531) Age of Reformation and schisms (1517–1648) (confessionalization) Period of the Baroque (“Absolutism”) and the Enlightenment (ca. 1650–1789) End of the Ancien Régime or beginning of the French Revolution (1789–1815) In Anglo-Saxon scientific terminology, on the other hand, one speaks of “Early Modern History” or, in relation to Europe, of “Early modern Europe” and thus usually describes a period from the 15th century to the late 18th century. This concept of periodization is based on the idea that the period “between the Reformation and the French Revolution” can be understood as an epoch of cultural transformation, which can be distinguished from both the Middle Ages and the modern age due to specific structures and processes.

The problem of epoch division

Every periodization in historical science is a setting based on certain criteria with the aim of systematizing the research field and delimiting and classifying a research object. As a result, only an approximation to historical reality is possible, or rather, a historical reality in the scientific sense is constituted in the first place. The transitions from the Middle Ages to the early modern period on the one hand and from this to the modern age on the other hand cannot be pinned down to individual dates. Rather, dates and specific events are only markers for orientation. The epoch boundaries are fluid and vary depending on whether, for example, political or socio-historical questions are in the foreground and which regions and countries are in focus. Moreover, many historical lines of development are of long duration and can also contradict a certain periodization.

Beginning of the early modern period

The intellectual and cultural awakening of the Renaissance and Humanism, the voyages of discovery by the Portuguese and Spaniards from the beginning of the 15th century, which changed the image of the earth forever, and the Reformation, which after 1517 destroyed the medieval unity of the (Western) Church destroyed – these three interrelated developments usually mark the beginning of the early modern period in European historiography.
In general, the Renaissance (rediscovery of antiquity) and humanism are seen as the beginning of a turning point. With it, a new image of man spread in Europe, which focused on the self-determined individual and his abilities. In philosophy, literature, painting, sculpture, architecture and all other cultural areas, people oriented themselves back to the forms and content of antiquity.
This development can be seen earliest in Italy, where it began as early as the 14th century, reached its first cultural heyday in Florence in the 15th century and from where it spread throughout Europe by the beginning of the 16th century. Italy owed its pioneering role not least to the acceptance of a large number of Greek scholars from Constantinople, which had been conquered by the Ottomans in 1453. These scholars brought with them to the Occident what had long been thought lost. At the same time, the spread of knowledge was greatly accelerated by Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press with movable type. This made it possible to accumulate knowledge, which developed particularly in the cities. In the cities, especially in the large imperial and Hanseatic cities, differentiated legal and organizational forms had been developed that had a great civilizing effect.
The invention of the printing press, in turn, helped an event to achieve a breakthrough that, particularly in Germany, is associated with the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of modern times: the Reformation. Martin Luther based his 95 theses, which he published in 1517, on a precise study of the Holy Scriptures in Greek and Hebrew, i.e. on knowledge based on the preliminary work of the humanists of the previous century.
Luther defended his theses in 1521 at the Diet of Worms before Emperor Charles V, who ruled an empire “on which the sun never set”. The Spanish possessions in the New World that Christopher Columbus discovered in 1492, the same year in which the Reconquista ended with the conquest of Granada, also belonged to this empire. The first impetus for the Age of Discoveries came from Portugal: expeditions had been sent out on behalf of Prince Henry the Navigator since 1415 to find a sea route to India (India trade). Vasco da Gama succeeded in doing this in 1498. The discoveries of the Portuguese and the Spanish not only expanded the world view of medieval people, but also resulted in European expansion across the entire known world.

Citizenship of the European Union

All citizens of European Union (EU) member states enjoy EU citizenship. It was formally created with the passage of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, at the same time as the European Union​​. EU citizenship complements, not replaces, national citizenship. [1][2] It provides EU citizens with the rights, freedoms and legal protections under EU law.
EU citizens enjoy freedom of movement, as well as freedom of settlement and employment within the EU. They can freely trade and transport goods, services and capital across EU national borders without restrictions on capital movements or fees. [3] Citizens have the right to vote in their state of residence and to stand in elections as candidates, as well as to vote for EU elections and to participate in the European Citizenship Initiative.
EU citizenship confers the consular protection of the embassies of other EU member states when a person’s country of nationality is not represented in the embassy or consulate of the foreign country for which they need protection or other types of assistance. [4] EU citizens have the right to address the European Parliament, the European Ombudsman and EU institutions directly in any EU treaty language[5], provided that the issues raised are within the competence of that institution. [6]
EU citizens enjoy the legal protections of EU law[7], including the EU Charter[8] and Acts and Directives on the protection of personal data, the rights of victims of crime, the prevention and combating of human trafficking, equal pay for equal work, and exemptions in employment. Discrimination based on religion or belief, sexual orientation and age. [8][9] EU citizens can directly contact the Office of the European Ombudsman.


“The introduction of a European form of citizenship with clear rights and duties was considered as early as the 1960s”. [11] EU citizenship was first introduced by the Maastricht Treaty and extended by the Amsterdam Treaty. [12] Prior to the 1992 Maastricht Treaty, the European Community treaties provided guarantees for the free movement of persons engaged in economic activities, but generally others did not. The 1951 Treaty of Paris[13] established the European Coal and Steel Community, establishing the right to free movement of workers in these industries, and the 1957 Treaty of Rome[14] provided for the free movement of workers and services.
However, the interpretation of treaty provisions by the European Court of Justice has not a narrow economic purpose, but a broader social and economic purpose. [15] In the Levin case,[16] the Court held that “freedom of employment is important, not only as a means of creating a single market for the economies of member states, but also as a worker’s right to raise his or her standard of living”. [15] According to the European Court of Justice case law, a worker’s right to free movement applies regardless of the purpose of the worker’s employment abroad,[16] part-time and full-time employment,[16] and whether the worker requires additional finances from the Member State to which he moved aid. [17] Since the European Court of Justice held that[18] recipients of services have the right to free movement under the treaty, and that this criterion is easily met,[19] in practice, the nationals of each EU country are in another member state, whether or not they are engaged in economic activities. activities, have a right to non-discrimination under Article 12 of the Treaty on the European Community even before the Maastricht Treaty. [20]
In the Martinez Sala case, the European Court of Justice held that the Citizenship Clause provided a substantive right to equal treatment, as was already conferred by trade union law. The Baumbast case later established that the right to equal treatment applies equally to economically active and economically inactive citizens. Despite these broad interpretations, the landmark Dano case, which combined standards of freedom of movement and equal treatment, said they were interdependent and subsequently limited the scope of Martinez Sala.

European Charter of Fundamental Rights

The European Union’s Charter of Fundamental Rights (CFR) sets out certain political, social and economic rights for citizens of the European Union (EU) and citizens under EU law. It was drafted by the European Convention and ratified by the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the European Commission on 7 December 2000. However, its legal status at the time was uncertain, and it was not until the implementation of the Lisbon Treaty on 1 December 2009 that it had full legal impact.
Under the Charter, the EU must act and legislate in accordance with the Charter, and the Court of Justice of the European Union will overturn laws passed by EU institutions that violate the Charter. The Charter applies to EU organisations and their member states in the application of EU law.

Legal Status

After the implementation of the Lisbon Treaty in 2009, the Bill of Rights has the same legal value as the EU Treaty. The charter referred to in the convention is a revised version of the 2000 document, which was humbly submitted by the three bodies the day before the Lisbon Treaty itself was signed.
Article 51(1) of the Charter deals with EU institutions and structures established under EU law and, under applicable EU law, the charters of EU member states. The addition of Article 6 of the EU Amendment Agreement and Article 51(2) of the Charter itself limits the scope of the Charter’s expansion of EU powers. As a result, the EU will not be able to legislate to protect the rights enshrined in the Charter unless the power to do so is provided for in the relevant convention. Furthermore, unless the relevant member state applies EU law, one cannot take a member state to court for failing to uphold rights in the Charter. This is the last point that has caused a lot of debate.
The Charter is not the first attempt to place human rights principles at the heart of EU law. All EU member states and participating countries are required to sign the European Convention on Human Rights so that many of the Convention’s principles, such as the right to a fair trial, can be considered the foundation of Europe. Even before they were reformulated in the charter, a court order. In defining the human rights protection afforded by the general principles of EU law (described in the aforementioned court cases), the European Court of Justice has addressed the question of whether the rights protected by these common principles apply to member states. After finding in Johnston v Royal Ulster Constabulary] that the right to fair proceedings is one of the common principles of EU law, in Kremzow v Austria [11] the ECJ had to decide whether Member States were obliged to apply the principle or not. About unjust murder charges. Lawyers for Kremzo have argued that his case is governed by EU law, arguing that his unfair conviction and sentence violated his right to freedom of movement within the EU. The European Court of Justice responded that because Kremzow’s law was not enforced under EU law, the nature of his criticism was unlawful in EU law. D01D02D03D04D05D06D07D08D09D10D11D12D13D14 D15D16D17D18D19D20D21D22D23D24D25D26D27D28D29